Our Members

Prof William Ledger

IVF Australia
Westfield Bondi Junction
1601/101 Grafton St
Bondi Junction, NSW 2022

02 8305 9800


Special interests

  • Infertility
  • Reproductive Endocrinology
  • Paediatric & Adolescent Gynaecology
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome


  • 1979: BA (Honours), Physiological Sciences University of Oxford
  • 1983: MA, D Phil, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oxford
  • 1985: BM, BCh, University of Oxford
  • 1989: MRCOG
  • 1993: RCOG Dual Accreditation - Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Subspecialist in Reproductive Medicine
  • 2001: FRCOG
  • 2011: FRANZCOG, CREI


  • 1979-82: Scholarship, Christ Church, Oxford Medical Research Council Studentship
  • 1981-82: Special Award, Medical Research Council
  • 1985: Sir John Stallworthy Prize in Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Oxford
  • 1990: Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists Subspecialty Trainee in Reproductive Medicine, University of Edinburgh
  • 1993: Fellowship, Green College, Oxford


  • British Fertility Society
  • Fertility Society of Australia
  • American Society for Reproductive Medicine
  • European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology
  • Society for the Study of Fertility
  • Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
  • Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
  • British Medical Association
  • Medical Protection Society
  • Avant
  • Gynaecological Visiting Society

Current advisory contributions:

  • Member RANZCOG Research Committee 2016 -
  • Member NSW Health Research Strategy Advisory Committee 2016 -
  • Section Editor, Female Reproductive Medicine, RBM Online 2012 -
  • Member NHMRC Working Party to review national guidelines on ethics and ART 2011 -
  • Member Scientific Advisory Committee, Fertility Society of Australia 2013 -
  • Member Editorial Board, Clinical Endocrinology 2004 -
  • Member Editorial Board, Current Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2001 -
  • Member Editorial Board, British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2003 -
  • Member Editorial Board, Women’s Health 2006 -
  • Member Editorial Board, Reproductive Biomedicine Online 2008 -
  • Member Editorial Board, Fertility and Sterility 2011 Member Editorial Board, Clinical Practice 2011 -
  • Member Pituitary Foundation Clinical Advisory Committee 2008 -
  • Advisor National Infertility Awareness Campaign 2006 -
  • Advisor ‘Verity’ (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society) 2006 -

Professional Qualification

Professor William Ledger is Senior Vice Dean of the Faculty of Medicine and Professor of Obstetrics & Gynaecology at the University of New South Wales, Director of Reproductive Medicine and Senior Staff Specialist at the Royal Hospital for Women and Chair of the Research and Development Committee and a fertility specialist at IVFAustralia.


Refereed Papers:

  1. Ledger W L, Ellwood D A & Taylor M J (1983) Cervical softening in late pregnant sheep by infusion of PGE2 into a cervical artery. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility: 69 : 511-515
  2. Ledger W L, Webster M W, Harrison L P, Anderson A B M & Turnbull A C (1985) Increase in cervical extensibility during labour induced after isolation of the cervix from the uterus in pregnant sheep. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: 151 : 397-402.
  3. Ledger W L, Webster M W, Anderson A B M & Turnbull A C (1985) Effect of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis on cervical softening and uterine activity during labour induced by progesterone withdrawal in sheep. Journal of Endocrinology: 105 : 227-233.
  4. Ledger W L & Anderson A B M (1987) The influence of steroid hormones on the uterine cervix during pregnancy. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry. 27 : 1029:1034.
  5. Ledger W L, Thomas E J, Browning D, Lenton E A & Cooke I D (1989) Suppression of gonadotrophin secretion does not reverse premature ovarian failure. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: 96 : 196-100.
  6. Angell R R, Ledger W L, Yong E L, Harness L & Baird D T (1991) Cytogenetic analysis of unfertilised human oocytes. Human Reproduction 6 : 568-573.
  7. Wu W-X, Brooks J, Millar M R, Ledger W L, Saunders P T K, Glasier A F & McNeilly A S (1991) Localisation of the sites of synthesis and action of prolactin by immunocytochemistry and in-situ hybridisation within the human utero-placental unit. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology: 7 : 241-247.
  8. Yong E L, Glasier A, Hillier H, Ledger W, Caird L, Beattie G, Sweeting V, Thong J & Baird D T (1992) Effect of cyclofenil on hormonal dynamics, follicular development and cervical mucus in normal and oligomenorrhoeic women. Human Reproduction 7 : 39-43.
  9. Ledger W L, Sweeting V M, Hillier H & Baird D T (1992) Inhibition of ovulation by low-dose mifepristone (RU 486) Human Reproduction 7 : 945-950.
  10. Ledger W L, Clark A, Olesnicky G & Norman R (1992) Life threatening rupture of an interstital ectopic pregnancy arising from oocyte donation: failure of early detection by quantitative human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and progesterone estimation. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 9 : 289-291.
  11. Loganath A, Arulkumaran S, Adaikan K L, Peh W L, Ledger W L & Ratnam S S (1993) Maternal plasma vasoactive intestinal polypeptide concentrations in third trimester of pregnancy and labour. Medical Science Research: 21 : 503-504.
  12. Wu W-X, Brooks J, Millar M R, Ledger W L, Glasier A F & McNeilly A S (1993). Immunolocalisation of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the human decidua in relation to prolactin production. Human Reproduction 8 : 1129-35.
  13. Tovanabutra S, Illingworth P J, Ledger W L, Glasier A F & Baird D T (1993) The relationship between peripheral immunoactive inhibin, human chorionic gonadotrophin, oestradiol and progesterone during human pregnancy. Clinical Endocrinology. 38 : 101-107.
  14. Angell R R, Zian J, Keith J, Ledger W L & Baird D T (1994) First meiotic division abnormalities in human oocytes : mechanism of trisomy formation. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 65 : 194-202.
  15. Wang X J, Ledger W L, Payne D, Jeffrey R & Matthews C D (1994) The contribution of embryo cryopreservation to in vitro fertilisation/gamete intra-fallopian transfer : 8 years experience. Human Reproduction: 9 : 103-109.
  16. 16. Ledger W L, Sweeting V M & Chatterjee S (1994) Rapid diagnosis of early ectopic pregnancy in an emergency gynaecology service - are measurements of progesterone, intact and free human chorionic gonadotrophins helpful? Human Reproduction 9 : 157-160.
  17. Crowther C, Dodd J , Ledger W L , Larwood D, Watson R, Hughes C & Petrucco O (1995) Can post-operative pain be effectively reduced by the use of a gas drain ? Gynaecological Endoscopy 4 : 53 - 57
  18. Mahmud G, López-Bernal A, Yudkin P, Ledger W L & Barlow D H (1995) Professor William Leigh Ledger MA, DPhil (Oxon) BM, BCh, FRANZCOG, FRCOG, CREI A controlled assessment of the IVF performance of British women of Indian origin compared with Caucasians. Human Reproduction 10 : 103 - 106
  19. Lockwood G M, Ledger W L & Barlow D H (1995). Successful pregnancy outcome in a renal transplant patient following in vitro fertilization. Human Reproduction. 10 : 1528 - 1530
  20. Clark A M, Ledger W L, Galletly C, Tomlinson L, Blaney F, Wang X & Norman R J (1995) Weight loss results in significant improvement in pregnancy and ovulation rates in anovulatory obese women. Human Reproduction 10 : 2705 - 2712
  21. Todd B S & Ledger W L (1996) A computer-based flowcharting system for clinical protocols. Medical Informatics 20 : 177-198
  22. Lashen H, Ledger W L, Davies W A R & Smith R (1996) Oocyte release in luteinised unruptured follicles (LUF) with a second dose of hCG Middle East Fertility Society Journal 1 : 1 - 4
  23. Birdsall M A, Lockwood G M, Ledger W L, Johnson P M & Chamley L W (1996) Antiphospholipid antibodies in women having in-vitro fertilisation Human Reproduction 11 : 1185 - 1189
  24. Lockwood G M, Muttukrishna S, Groome N, Knight P & Ledger W L (1996) Circulating inhibins and activin-A during GnRH downregulation and ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH for in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer Clinical Endocrinology 45 : 741 - 74
  25. Muttukrishna S, Knight PG, Groome NP, Redman CWG & Ledger W L (1997) Activin A and inhibin A as possible endocrine markers for pre-eclampsia Lancet 349 : 1285 - 1288
  26. Birdsall M, Ledger W L, Groome N P, Abdalla H & Muttukrishna S (1997) Inhibin A and activin A in the first trimester of human pregnancy Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82 : 1557 - 1560
  27. Muttukrishna S, Child T J, Groome N P & Ledger W L (1997) Source of circulating levels of inhibin A, pro alpha C-containing inhibins and activin A in early pregnancy Human Reproduction 12 : 1089 - 1093
  28. Lockwood G M, Ledger W L, Barlow D H, Groome N P & Muttukrishna S (1997) Measurement of inhibin and activin in early human pregnancy: demonstration of feto- placental origin and role in prediction of early pregnancy outcome Biology of Reproduction 57 : 1490 - 1494
  29. Child TJ, Watson NS & Ledger WL (1997) Sequential bilateral adnexal torsion after a single cycle of gonadotrophin ovulation induction with intrauterine insemination Fertility & Sterility 67: 573 - 575
  30. Bagratee JS, Lockwood G, Lopez Bernal A, Barlow DH & Ledger WL (1998) Comparison of highly purified FSH (Metrodin-High Purity) with Pergonal for IVF superovulation Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 15 : 65 - 69
  31. Muttukrishna S, Groome NP & Ledger WL (1998) Gonadotrophic control of secretion of dimeric inhibins and activin-A by human granulosa- luteal cells in vitro Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 14 : 566 - 574
  32. Lockwood G M, Muttukrishna S, Groome N P, Mattthews D R & Ledger W L (1998) Mid-follicular phase pulses of inhibin B are absent in polycystic ovary syndrome and are initiated by successful laparoscopic ovarian diathermy: a possible mechanism regulating emergence of the dominant follicle Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83 : 1730 - 1735
  33. Lockwood G, Muttukrishna S & Ledger WL (1998) Inhibins and activins in human ovulation,conception and pregnancy Human Reproduction Update 4 : 284 - 295
  34. Lockwood GM, Ledger WL, Barlow DH, Groome NP & Muttukrishna S (1998) Identification of the source of inhibins at the time of conception provides a diagnostic role for them in very early pregnancy. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology 40:303-308
  35. Lashen H, Ledger W, Lopez-Bernal A & Barlow D (1999) Extremes of body mass do not adversely affect the outcome of superovulation and in-vitro fertilization Human Reproduction 14:712 - 715
  36. Lashen H, Ledger W, Lopez-Bernal A & Barlow D (1999) Poor responders to ovulation induction: is proceeding to in-vitro fertilization worthwhile? Human Reproduction 14: 964 -969
  37. 37. Ledger WL (1999) Endometriosis and infertility: an integrated approach International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 64 suppl1: S33 - S40
  38. Al-Azemi M, Ledger WL, Lockwood GM & Barlow DH (1999) Successful transvaginal ultrasound guided ablation of a cervical pregnancy in a patient with simultaneous intrauterine pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer Human Fertility 2: 67 - 69
  39. Muttukrishna S, Chamberlain P, Evans LW, Asselin J, Groome NP & Ledger WL (1999) Amniotic fluid concentrations of dimeric inhibins, activin A and follistatin in pregnancy. European Journal of Endocrinology 140:420-424
  40. Lau CP, Ledger WL, Groome NP, Barlow DH & Muttukrishna S (1999) Dimeric inhibins and activin A in human follicular fluid and oocyte-cumulus culture medium Human Reproduction 14: 2525-2530
  41. Muttukrishna S, Child T, Lockwood G M, , Groome N, Barlow D & Ledger W L (2000) Serum concentrations of inhibins, activin A, pituitary gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids during the menstrual cycle in older women Human Reproduction 15: 549 - 556
  42. Lenton E, Soltan A, Hewitt J, Thomson A, Davies W, Ashraf N, Sharma V, Jenner L, Ledger W & McVeigh E (2000) Induction of ovulation in women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques: recombinant human FSH (follitropin alpha) versus highly purified urinary FSH (urofollitropin HP). Human Reproduction 15:1021-1027
  43. Ledger WL & Skull J (2000) Rationing fertility services in the NHS: a provider's perspective. Human Fertility 3:155-156
  44. Muttukrishna S, North RA, Morris J, Schellenberg JC, Taylor RS, Asselin J, Ledger W, Groome N & Redman CW (2000) Serum inhibin A and activin A are elevated prior to the onset of pre-eclampsia. Human Reproduction 15:1640 - 1645
  45. Jackson N, Biddolph SC, Ledger W, Groome NP & Manek S (2000) Inhibin expression in normal and pre-eclamptic placental tissue. International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 19:219-24
  46. Nasseri S & Ledger W L (2001) Clomiphene citrate in the twenty-first century. Human Fertility 4:145-151
  47. Muttukrishna S, Farouk A, Sharma S, Evans L, Groome N, Ledger W & Sathanandan M (2001) Serum activin A and follistatin in disorders of spermatogenesis in men. European Journal of Endocrinology. 144:425-429
  48. Asboth G, Price SA, Bellinger J, Ledger W, Barlow DH & Bernal AL (2001) Characterization of adenylyl cyclases in cultured human granulosa cells. Reproduction. 121:217-28
  49. Cheong Y C, Laird S M, Li T C, Shelton J B, Ledger W L & Cooke I D (2001) Peritoneal healing and adhesion formation/reformation. Human Reproduction Update 7: 556-566
  50. Cheong Y C, Laird S M, Shelton J B, Ledger W L & Cooke I D (2002) The correlation of adhesions and peritoneal fluid cytokine concentrations: a pilot study. Human Reproduction 17: 1039-1045
  51. Cheong YC, Shelton JB, Laird SM, Richmond M, Kudesia G, Li TC, Ledger WL (2002). IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations in the peritoneal fluid of women with pelvic adhesions. Human Reproduction 18: 69-75.
  52. Amer S A K, Gopalan V, Li T C, Ledger W L& Cooke I D (2002) Long term follow-up of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: clinical outcome. Human Reproduction 17 : 2035-2042
  53. Ledger W (2002) Patient scheduling for gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist protocols Human Fertility 5 (G29 - G33)
  54. Bahathiq AO, Stewart RL, Wells M, Moore HD, Pacey AA & Ledger WL (2002). Production of activins by the human endosalpinx. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 87:5283-5289.
  55. Muttukrishna S, Sharma S, Barlow DH, Ledger W, Groome N & Sathanandan M (2002). Serum inhibins, estradiol, progesterone and FSH in surgical menopause: a demonstration of ovarian pituitary feedback loop in women. Human Reproduction.17:2535 - 2539
  56. Lahiri S, Anobile C J, Stewart P & Ledger W L (2003) Changes in circulating concentrations of inhibins A and pro-C during first trimester medical termination of pregnancy. Human Reproduction. 18:744-748
  57. Cheong YC, Shelton JB, Laird SM, Li TC, Ledger WL & Cooke ID. (2003) Peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and transforming growth factor-beta in women with pelvic adhesions. Fertility & Sterility 79:1168-75.
  58. Bacon CJ, Locker JR, Shaw I & Ledger WL (2003) A comparison of prevalence and reasons for use of anabolic steroids and nutritional supplements in gym attenders Bulletin of Physical Education 39: 93 - 106
  59. Out HJ, Rutherford A, Fleming R, Tay CCK, Trew G, Ledger WL & Cahill D (2004) A randomized, double-blind, multicentre clinical trial comparing starting doses of 150 and 200 IU of recombinant FSH in women treated with the GnRH antagonist ganirelix for assisted reproduction Human Reproduction 19: 90 - 95
  60. Al-Azemi M, Ledger WL, Diejomaoh M, Mousa M, Makshseed M & Omu A (2004) Measurement of inhibin A and inhibin pro-C in early human pregnancy and their role in the prediction of pregnancy outcome in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss Fertility & Sterility 80: 1473 - 1479
  61. Jones GL, Benes K, Clark TL, Denham R, Holder MG, Haynes TJ, Mulgrew NC, Shepherd KE, Wilkinson VH, Singh M, Balen A, Lashen H, & Ledger WL (2004) The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (PCOSQ): a validation. Human Reproduction 19: 371-377.
  62. Amer SA, Li TC & Ledger WL (2004) Ovulation induction using laparoscopic ovarian drilling in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: predictors of success. Human Reproduction 19: 1719-1724.
  63. Rostami-Hodjegan A, Lennard MS, Tucker GT & Ledger WL (2004) Monitoring plasma concentrations to individualize treatment with clomiphene citrate. Fertility & Sterility 81:1187-93.
  64. Pezeshki M, Taherian AA, Gharavy M & Ledger WL (2004) Menstrual characteristics and pregnancy in women after renal transplantation. International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics 85 :119-25.
  65. Refaat B, Bahathiq AO, Sockanathan S, Stewart RL, Wells M & Ledger WL (2004) Production and localization of activins and activin type IIA and IIB receptors by the human endosalpinx Reproduction. 128: 249 - 255
  66. Bahathiq AO, Stewart RL, Baxter L, Wells M, Moore HD & Ledger WL (2005) Tissue immunoexpression and mRNA localisation of inhibin/activin subunits in human epididymis Fertility and Sterility 83: 78 - 85
  67. Ledger WL (2005) Clinical pharmacology of gonadotrophin preparations Reproductive Biomedicine Online 10. Supp. 3 19-24
  68. Ledger WL (2005) Regulation of reproduction in the UK Human Fertility 8: 65 - 67
  69. Prakash A, Laird S, Tuckerman E, Li TC & Ledger WL (2005) Inhibin A and activin A may be used to predict pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent miscarriage. Fertility and Sterility 83:1758-63.
  70. Ledger WL, Anumba DOC, Marlow N, Thomas CM & Wilson ECF (2006) The costs to the NHS of multiple births after IVF treatment in the UK British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 113: 21 - 25
  71. Jones GL, Ledger WL, Bonnet TJ, Radley, S & Parkinson N & Kennedy S H (2006) The impact of treatment for gynaecological cancer upon health-related quality of life (HRQoL): a systematic review American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 194: 26 - 42
  72. 72Prakash A, Li TC, Laird S, Nargund G, Ledger WL. (2006) Absence of follicular phase defect in women with recurrent miscarriage. Fertility & Sterility 85: 1784-90
  73. 73. Kennedy R, Kingsland C, Rutherford A, Hamilton M & Ledger W (2006) Implementation of the NICE Guideline - Recommendations from the British Fertility Society for National Criteria for NHS funding of assisted conception Human Fertility 9: 181 - 189
  74. 74Prakash A, Laird S, Li TC &Ledger WL. (2006) Preliminary prospective study of the endocrinology of conception cycles and early pregnancy in women with antiphospholipid syndrome treated with low molecular weight heparin Fertility & Sterility 85: 165 - 170
  75. Nguyen IT, Lennard MS, Ghobadi C, Amer S, Rostami-Hodjegan A, & Ledger WL (2006) Does previous response to clomifene influence the dose of gonadotropins used in subsequent superovulation treatment cycles? Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 23: 427 - 431
  76. 76Prakash A, Li TC, Tuckerman E, Laird S, Wells M & Ledger WL. (2006) A study of luteal phase expression of inhibin, activin and follistatin subunits in the endometrium of women with recurrent miscarriage Fertility & Sterility 86: 1723 - 1730
  77. 77. Ledger WL.(2006) Human embryonic stem cells: a justification for their use in medical therapeutics. Southern Medical Journal 99: 1436-7
  78. 78. Ledger WL.(2006) Current status of research using human embryonic stem cells. Southern Medical Journal 99: 1438-41.
  79. 79La FM, Ledger WL, Davidson JW, Howard DM & Jones GL. (2007) The Effects of a Third Generation Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill on the Classical Singing Voice. Journal of Voice 21: 754 - 761
  80. Amer S, Laird SM, Ledger WL & Li TC (2007) Effect of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy on circulating inhibin B in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome Human Reproduction 22:389 - 394
  81. McIlveen M, Skull JD & Ledger WL (2007) Evaluation of the utility of multiple endocrine and ultrasound measures of ovarian reserve in the prediction of cycle cancellation in a high risk IVF population Human Reproduction 22: 778-785.
  82. Ghobadi C, Nguyen IT, Amer S, Rostami-Hodjegan A, Lennard MS & Ledger WL (2007) Evaluation of an existing nomogram for the prediction of response to clomifene citrate Fertility and Sterility 87: 597 - 602
  83. Metwally M, Tuckerman E, Laird S, Ledger W & Li T (2007) Impact of high body mass index on endometrial morphology and function in the peri- implantation period in women with recurrent miscarriage Reproductive Biomedicine Online 14: 328 - 334
  84. Jones GL, Hall JM, Balen AH & Ledger WL (2008) Health-related quality of life measurement in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review Human Reproduction Update 14:15-25.
  85. Metwally M, Cutting R, Tipton A, Skull J, Ledger WL & Li TC (2007) The effect of increased body mass index on oocyte and embryo quality in patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 15:532 - 538
  86. Refaat B, Ola B, Chapman N & Ledger WL (2008) The expression of activin ßA- and ßB-subunits, follistatin and activin type II receptors in Fallopian tubes bearing an ectopic pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 93: 293-9.
  87. Dixon S, Nasiri F, Ledger W, Lenton E, Duenas A, Sutcliffe P & Chilcott J (2008) Cost-efectiveness analysis of different embryo transfer strategies in England British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 115: 758-66
  88. Metwally M, Ledger WL, & Li TC (2008) Reproductive endocrinology and clinical aspects of obesity in women. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1127:140-146.
  89. Metwally M, Ong K, Ledger WL & Li TC (2008) Does high body mass index increase the risk of miscarriage after spontaneous and assisted conception? A meta analysis of the evidence. Fertility & Sterility 90: 714 - 726
  90. 90. Jones GL, Ledger WL & Mitchell C (2008) Suspected premature menopause. British Medical Journal 336 (7648) :833
  91. 91. Absalom K, Greenfield D, Eiser C, Ross R, Ledger W, Hancock B & Coleman R (2008) Ovarian failure following cancer treatment: Current management and quality of life Human Reproduction 23:2506 - 2512
  92. 92. Waylen A, Metwally M, Jones GL, Wilkinson AJ & Ledger WL (2008) The effect of cigarette smoking upon clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction: a meta- analysis. Human Reproduction Update 15: 31 - 44
  93. Ghobadi C, Mirhosseini N, Mohammad RS, Moghadamnia A, Lennard MS, Ledger WL & Rostami-Hodjegan A (2008) Single-Dose Pharmacokinetic Study of Clomiphene Citrate Isomers in Anovular Patients With Polycystic Ovary Disease Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 49: 147 - 154
  94. Connolly M, Hoorens S & Ledger WL (2008) Money in - babies out: assessing the long term economic impact of IVF-conceived children Journal of Medical Ethics 34: 653 - 654 95.Amer SA, Li TC, Metwally M, Emarh M & Ledger WL (2009) Randomized controlled trial comparing laparoscopic ovarian diathermy with clomiphene citrate as a first-line method of ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction 24: 219-225.
  95. 96. Metwally M, Amer S, Li TC & Ledger WL (2009) An RCT of metformin versus orlistat for the management of obese anovulatory women Human Reproduction 24: 966 - 975
  96. Al-Azemi M, Houdmont M, Jones GL & Ledger WL (2009) Immediate and delayed add-back hormonal replacement therapy during ultra long GnRH agonist treatment of chronic cyclical pelvic pain British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 116: 1646 - 1656 (abstracted by the American Academy of Pain Management into their enewsletter Pain Management News and Research)
  97. Devroey P, Aboulghar M, Garcia-Velasco J, Griesinger G, Humaidan P, Kolibianakis E, Ledger W, Tomás C & Fauser BC (2009) Improving the patient's experience of IVF/ICSI: a proposal for an ovarian stimulation protocol with GnRH antagonist co-treatment. Human Reproduction 24: 764-74.
  98. La FM, Howard DM, Ledger W, Davidson JW & Jones G (2009) Oral contraceptive pill containing drospirenone and the professional voice: An electrolaryngographic analysis. Logoped Phoniatric Vocology. 34:11-19.
  99. Connolly M, Gallo F, Hoorens S & Ledger W. (2009) Assessing long-run economic benefits attributed to an IVF-conceived singleton based on projected lifetime net tax contributions in the UK. Human Reproduction 24: 626-632
  100. Ghobadi C, Amer S, Lashen H, Lennard MS, Ledger WL & Rostami-Hodjegan A (2009) Evaluation of the relationship between plasma concentrations of En- and Zu-clomiphene and induction of ovulation in anovulatory women being treated with clomiphene citrate Fertility and Sterility 91: 1135 - 1140
  101. Refaat B, Al-Azemi M, Geary I, Eley A, Ledger W (2009) Role of activins and inducible nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of ectopic pregnancy in patients with or without Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Clinical Vaccine Immunology 16: 1493-503
  102. Ledger W, Wiebinga C, Anderson P, Irwin D, Holman A, & Lloyd A (2009) Costs and outcomes associated with in-vitro fertilisation using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone Reproductive Biomedicine Online 19: 337- 342
  103. Connolly M & Ledger W. (2009) The impact of introducing patient co-payments in Germany on the use of IVF and ICSI: A price-elasticity of demand assessment Human Reproduction 24: 2796 - 2800
  104. 105. Al-Azemi M, Refaat B, Aplin J & Ledger W (2009) The expression of MUC1 in human Fallopian tube during the menstrual cycle and in ectopic pregnancy. Human Reproduction. 24: 2582 - 2587
  105. Metwally M, Saravelos SH, Ledger WL & Li TC (2009) Body mass index and risk of miscarriage in women with recurrent miscarriage. Fertility and Sterility 94: 290-5.
  106. Ledger WL (2009) Demographics of infertility Reproductive Biomedicine Online 18 Suppl 2: 11 - 14
  107. Amer S, Li TC & Ledger W (2009) The value of measuring anti- Mullerian hormone in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing laparoscopic ovarian diathermy Human Reproduction 24: 2760 - 2766
  108. Devroey P, Boostanfar R, Koper NP, Mannaerts BM, IJzerman-Boon PC & Fauser BC on behalf of the ENGAGE Investigators (2009) A double-blind, non-inferiority RCT comparing corifollitropin alfa and recombinant FSH during the first seven days of ovarian stimulation using a GnRH antagonist protocol Human Reproduction 24: 3063-3072
  109. Al-Azemi M, Refaat B, Amer S, Ola B, Chapman N & Ledger WL (2010) The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in human Fallopian tube during the menstrual cycle and in ectopic pregnancy. Fertility and Sterility 94: 833-40
  110. Connolly MP, Ledger W & Postma MJ (2010) Economics of Assisted Reproduction: Access to fertility treatments and valuing live births in economic terms Human Fertility13: 13-8.
  111. Waylen AL, Jones GL& Ledger WL (2010) Effect of cigarette smoking upon reproductive hormones in women of reproductive age: a retrospective analysis. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 20: 861-865
  112. Fauser BJC, Nargund G, Nyboe Andersen A, Norman R, Tarlatzis B, Boivin J & Ledger WL (2010) Mild ovarian stimulation for IVF: 10 years later Human Reproduction 25: 2678-2684
  113. 114. Ledger W L (2010) Clinical utility of measurement of anti-mullerian hormone in reproductive endocrinology Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 95: 5144 - 5154
  114. Jones GL, Palep-Singh M, Ledger WL, Balen AH, Jenkinson C, Campbell MJ & Lashen H (2010) Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 8:149 - 158
  115. Fauser BC, Alper M, Ledger WL, Schoolcraft WB, Zandvleit A & Mannaerts BM (2011) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of corifollitropin alfa versus recombinant FSH during ovarian stimulation for IVF. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 21: 593 - 601
  116. Amer S, Li TC, Samuelson C & Ledger W (2011) The impact of insulin resistance on the outcome of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Acta Obstetrica Gynecologica Scandinavica 90:338-43
  117. Al-Azemi M, Killick SR, Duffy S, Pye C, Refaat B, Hill N & Ledger W (2011) Multi-marker assessment of ovarian reserve predicts oocyte yield after ovulation induction. Human Reproduction 26:414 - 422.
  118. Metwally M & Ledger WL (2011) Long-term complications of assisted reproductive technologies Human Fertility 14: 77 - 87
  119. Ledger WL, Fauser BC, Devroey P, Zandvliet AS & Mannaerts B (2011) Corifollitropin alfa doses based on body weight: clinical overview of drug exposure and ovarian response Reproductive Biomedicine Online 23: 150 - 159
  120. Cowell PE, LedgerWL, Wadnerkar MB, Skilling FM & Whiteside SP (2011) Hormones and dichotic listening: Evidence from the study of menstrual cycle effects Brain and Cognition 76: 256 - 262
  121. Refaat B & Ledger WL (2011) The expression of activins, their type II receptors and follistatin in human Fallopian tube during the menstrual cycle and in pseudopregnancy. Human Reproduction 26:3346-54
  122. Ledger W L & Chapman M (2011) Barriers to conducting clinical research in reproductive medicine: Australia and the UK Fertility and Sterility 96:813-6.
  123. 124Jones GL, Hall JM, Lashen HL, Balen AH, Ledger WL. (2011) Health-related quality of life among adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Obstetetric, Gynecological & Neonatal Nursing.40: 577-88
  124. Zinaman M, Johnson S, Ellis J & Ledger WL (2012) Accuracy of perception of ovulation day in women trying to conceive Current Medical Research & Opinion 28, 1-6
  125. 126. Simpson H, Refaat B, Britton E, Biswas J, Wells M & Ledger WL (2012) Why does the Fallopian tube fail in ectopic pregnancy? The role of activins, iNOS and MUC- 1 in ectopic implantation Fertility & Sterility. 97:1115-23
  126. Povey AC, Clyma JA, McNamee R, Moore HD, Baillie H, Pacey AA, Cherry NM; Participating Centres of Chaps-uk (2012) Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for poor semen quality: a case-referent study. Human Reproduction 27:2799-806
  127. Li W, Newell-Price J, Jones GL, Ledger WL, Li TC. (2012) The relationship between serum prolactin concentration and pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 25:180-9.
  128. Levy MJ, Ledger W, Kolibianakis EM, Ijzerman-Boon PC, Gordon K (2013) Is it possible to reduce the incidence of weekend oocyte retrievals in GnRH antagonist protocols? Reproductive Biomedicine Online 26: 50 - 58
  129. 130. Tiplady S, Jones G, Campbell M, Johnson S, Ledger W (2013) Home ovulation tests and stress in women trying to conceive: a randomized controlled trial. Human Reproduction 28:138-51
  130. Chambers GM, Wang YA, Chapman M, Hoang VP, Sullivan EA, Abdalla HI & Ledger WL (2013) What can we learn from a decade of promoting safe embryo transfer practices? A comparative analysis of policies and outcomes in the United Kingdom and Australia 2001-
  131. Human Reproduction 28:1679-86
  132. Li W, Ma N, Laird S, Ledger WL & Li TC (2013) The relationship between serum prolactin concentration and pregnancy outcome in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  133. Nesbitt-Hawes EM, Maley PE, Ryun Won H, Law KS, Zhang CS, Lyons SD, Ledger WL & Abbott JA (2013) Laparoscopic Subtotal Hysterectomy: Evidence and Techniques Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology 20: 424 - 434
  134. Cheong YC, Dix S, Hung Yu Ng E, Ledger WL, Farquhar C (2013) Acupuncture and assisted reproductive technology. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 26;7:CD006920.
  135. Coughlan C, Sinagra M, Ledger W, Li TC, Laird S (2013) Endometrial integrin expression in women with recurrent implantation failure after in vitro fertilization and its relationship to pregnancy outcome. Fertility & Sterility100:825-30
  136. Bowes H, Jones G, Thompson J, Alazzam M, Wood H, Hinchliff S, Ledger W, Tidy J (2013) Understanding the impact of the treatment pathway upon the health-related quality of life of women with newly diagnosed endometrial cancer - A qualitative study. European Journal of Oncology Nursing S1462-3889(13)00134-8.
  137. Ledger WL (2014) Measurement of antimüllerian hormone: not as straightforward as it seems. Fertility & Sterility 101: 339
  138. Coughlan C, Walters S, Ledger W, Li TC (2014) A comparison of psychological stress among women with and without reproductive failure. International Journal of Gynaecology & Obstetrics 124:143 - 147
  139. Coughlan C, Ledger W, Wang Q, Liu F, Demirol A, Gurgan T, Cutting R, Ong K, Sallam H, Li TC (2014) Recurrent implantation failure: definition and management. Reproductive Biomedicine Online 28:14-38
  140. Cheong YC, Reading I, Bailey SL, Sadek K, Ledger W & Li TC (2014) Should women with chronic pelvic pain have adhesiolysis? Results and lessons learnt from a prematurely discontinued randomized controlled trial (RCT) of adhesiolysis versus diagnostic laparoscopy. BMC Women's Health 14:36 - 42
  141. Han X, McShane M, Sahertian R, White C & Ledger WL (2014) Pre-mixing serum samples with assay buffer is a pre-requisite for reproducible anti- Mullerian hormone measurement using the Beckman Coulter Gen II assay Human Reproduction 29:1042-1048
  142. Coughlan C, Yuan X, Demirol A, Ledger W & Li TC (2014) Factors affecting the outcome of “ Endometrial Scratch” in women with recurrent implantation failure. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 59: 39 - 43
  143. Li Z, Wang YA, Ledger W & Sullivan E (2014) Birthweight percentiles by gestational age for births following assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand, 202 - 2010 Human Reproduction 29: 1787 - 1800
  144. 144. Metwally M, Preece R, Thomas J, Ledger W, Li TC (2014) A proteomic analysis of the endometrium in obese and overweight women with recurrent miscarriage: preliminary evidence for an endometrial defect. Reproductive Biology & Endocrinology 12: 75 - 85
  145. Li Z, Wang Y, Ledger W, Edgar D & Sullivan E (2014) Clinical outcomes following cryopreservation of blastocysts by vitrification or slow freezing: a population-based cohort study Human Reproduction 29:2794 - 801
  146. Chambers GM, Ledger W (2014) The economic implications of multiple pregnancy Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 19: 254 - 261
  147. Pacey A, Povey A, Clyma J, McNamee R, Moore H, Baillie H, Cherry N participating centres of Chaps-UK (2014) Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for poor sperm morphology Human Reproduction 29: 1629 - 1636
  148. Atkinson P, Koch J & Ledger WL (2014) GnRH agonist trigger and a freeze-all strategy to prevent ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a retrospective study of OHSS risk and pregnancy rates Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 54:581 - 585
  149. Scholten I, Chambers GM, van Loendersloot L, van der Veen F, Repping S, Gianotten J, Hompes PG, Ledger WL, Mol BW (2015) The impact of assisted reproductive technology on the incidence of multiple gestation infants: a population perspective. Fertility and Sterility 103:179 -183
  150. Nesbitt-Hawes EM, Campbell N, Maley P, Won H, Hooshmand D, Henry A, Ledger W & Abbott JA (2015) The surgical treatment of severe endometriosis positively affects the chances of natural or assisted pregnancy postoperatively Biomed Research international ePub July 2015
  151. Coughlan C, Clarke H, Cutting R, Saxton J, Waite S, Ledger W, Li TC, Pacey A & Anthony A (2015) Sperm DNA Fragmentation, Recurrent Implantation Failure and Recurrent Miscarriage Asian Journal of Andrology 17
  152. Riepsamen A, Wu LE, Ledger WL, Sinclair DA & Homer HA (2015) Nicotinamide impairs entry into and exit from meiosis I in mouse oocytes". PLOS One 10 :e0126194
  153. Jones GL, Johnson S & Ledger WL (2015) Women’s experiences of ovulation testing, a qualitative analysis Reproductive Health 12:116 - 122
  154. Aitchison LP, Flint J, Nesbitt-Hawes E, Ledger W, Abbott J (2015) A feasibility study determining surgical ergonomics in a live surgical setting. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology 22: 626-30
  155. Refaat B, Dalton E & Ledger WL (2015) Ectopic pregnancy secondary to in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer: Pathogenic mechanisms and management strategies Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 13: 30 - 48
  156. Storr A, Venetis CA, Cooke S, Susetio D, Kilani S, Ledger W (2015) Morphokinetic parameters using time-lapse technology and day 5 embryo quality: a prospective cohort study Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 32:1151-60
  157. Jones GL, Jacques RM, Thompson J, Wood HJ, Hughes J, Ledger W, Alazzam M, Radley SC & Tidy JA (2015) The impact of surgery for vulval cancer upon health-related quality of life and pelvic floor outcomes during the first year of treatment: a longitudinal, mixed methods study. Psychooncology Epub ahead of print
  158. Ledger WL & Turner M (2016) Misdiagnosis of Miscarriage: Findings of a national enquiry in the Republic of Ireland Fertility and Sterility 105:417-422
  159. Anazodo AC, Stern CJ, McLachlan RI, Gerstl B, Agresta F, Cohn RJ, Jayasinghe Y, Wakefield CE, Daly G, Chan D, Gilbert L, Kemertzis M, Orme LM, Wand H, Viney R, Gillam L, Deans R, Jetti M, Wu J, Chapman M, Ledger W, Sullivan EA (2016) A Study Protocol for the Australasian Oncofertility Registry: Monitoring Referral Patterns and the Uptake, Quality, and Complications of Fertility Preservation Strategies in Australia and New Zealand. Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology [Epub ahead of print]
  160. Anazodo AC, Gerstl B, Stern CJ, McLachlan RI, Agresta F, Jayasinghe Y, Cohn RJ, Wakefield CE, Chapman M, Ledger W, Sullivan EA (2016) Utilizing the Experience of Consumers in Consultation to Develop the Australasian Oncofertility Consortium Charter. Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology [Epub ahead of print]

Submitted for Publication

  • Chambers GM, Ward H, Macaldowie A, Chapman M, Farquhar C, Bowman M, Molloy D & Ledger W
  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) - A population study to assess the contribution of innovative techniques to improvement in clinical success rates from 2002 to 2013
  • New England Journal of Medicine


  • Inhibin, Activin and Follistatin in Human Reproductive Physiology
    Muttukrishna S & Ledger W (Eds)
    Imperial College Press, 2001
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology, An Evidence - based text for MRCOG
    Luesley D & Baker PN (Eds)
    W L Ledger, Section Editor, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Arnold, 2004
  • Chronic Pelvic Pain
    Tin-Chiu Li & William L Ledger (Eds)
    Taylor & Francis Group, 2006
  • A Decade of Success in ART
    B Oddens & W Ledger (Eds)
    Organon Group Publishing, 2006
  • Drug Therapy in Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    William L Ledger & PC Ho (Eds)
    Informa Healthcare, 2007
  • The MRCOG: a guide to the examination
    William L Ledger & Michael G Murphy (Eds)
    RCOG Press 2008
  • Recent Advances in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Volume 23
    William Dunlop & William L Ledger (Eds)
    Royal Society of Medicine Press 2008
  • Reproductive Ageing and Women’s Health
    Proceedings of the 56th RCOG Study Group
    Kehoe S, Nikolau D, Ledger W & Bewley S (eds)
    RCOG Press 2009
  • The Fallopian Tube, Clinico-Pathological Correlates
    William L Ledger, Adil O Bahathiq & Seang L Tan (Eds)
    Cambridge University Press, 2010
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology, an Evidence-based text for the MRCOG
    Luesley D & Baker P (Eds)
    W L Ledger, Section Editor, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Second edition
    Hodder Arnold, 2010
  • Recent Advances in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Volume 24
    William L Ledger & Justin Clark (Eds)
    JP Press London 2014
  • Recent Advances in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Volume 25
    William L Ledger & Justin Clark (Eds)
    JP Press London 2015
  • Chronic pelvic pain
    William L Ledger, Thierry Vancaille and William Schlaff (Eds)
    Churchill Livingstone 2014
  • Recent Advances in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Volume 26
    William L Ledger & Justin Clark (Eds)
    JP Press London (in preparation)
  • Oxford Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    W L Ledger, Editor, Reproductive Medicine
    Oxford University Press (in preparation)

Chapters, Reviews and Guidelines

  • Ledger W L (1985)
    Recent studies on the role of prostaglandins in parturition in sheep.
    In "The Role of Prostaglandins in Labour". Ed - C Wood.
    Royal Society of Medicine International Symposium and Congress Series: 92 : 39-44
  • Ledger W L, Webster M W, Anderson A B M & Turnbull A C (1985)
    Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis prevents labour induced by progesterone withdrawal.
    In "Challenging Frontiers for Prostaglandin Research". Eds - Katori M, Yamamoto S &
    Hayaishi O. Gendai Iryosha. Tokyo: 80-86.
  • Baird D T, Ledger W L & Glasier A F (1990)
    Induction of ovulation, cost effectiveness and future prospects
    Bailliere's Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology: 4/3 : 639-650.
  • Ledger W L & Baird D T(1995)
    Endocrinology of Ovulation.
    in "Gametes - The Oocyte". Ed: J G Grudzinskas & J L Yovich.
    Cambridge Reviews in Human Reproduction. Cambridge University Press. 193 - 209.
  • Ledger W L (1997)
    Reviews in Reproductive Medicine for ‘Advances in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, volume
    13 & volume 14’
    Medicine Group (Education) Ltd
  • Ledger W L (1997)
    Female Infertility
    Medicine 25: 48 - 53
  • Ledger W L (1997)
    Physiological changes around the menopause
    Trends in Urology, Gynaecology and Sexual Health
  • Child TJ, Ledger WL & Barlow DH (1998)
    Number of embryos transferred and age of mother
    Fertility and Sterility 68: 746 - 748 (letter)
  • Lockwood GM, Muttukrishna S &Ledger WL (1998)
    Inhibins and activins in human ovulation, conception and pregnancy
    Human Reproduction Update 4: 284 - 295
  • Ledger WL (1998)
    Tubal factor infertility
    RCOG Dialog Volume 1 (pub. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists,
  • Ledger WL (1999)
    Inhibins and the reproductive cycle
    Advances in Obstetrics and Gynaecology 16: 14 - 20
  • Ledger WL (1999)
    Commentaries for "Evidence Based Obstetrics and Gynaecology'
    Ed. Salim Daya
  • Raslan F & Ledger W L (1999)
    Vaginal delivery after Caesarean Section
    In Obstetrics for Postgraduates and Practitioners - Aspects of Fetal and Maternal Medicine
    Eds Sengupta BS and Thornton JG
    Churchill Livingstone
  • Ledger WL & Schlaff B (2000)
    Endometriosis: A Mystery Tour for the Clinician and Patient
  • Ledger WL.
    Could tight garments cause endometriosis? (2000)
    British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 107:705 - letter
  • Ledger W (2000)
    Advances in Gynecological Endocrinology
    Proceedings of the 8th World Congress of Gynecological Endocrinology
    Genazzani AR, Petraglia F Artini PG (Eds)
  • Ledger WL (2001)
    Inhibin and activin in male reproductive physiology
    In: Inhibin, Activin and Follistatin in Human Reproductive Physiology
    Muttukrishna & Ledger (eds)
    Imperial College Press
  • Ledger WL (2001)
    Measurement of inhibin A and activin A in pregnancy--possible diagnostic applications.
    Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology 180:117-21.
  • Ledger WL. (2001)
    Assisted conception: what does the future hold?
    Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 13:305-307
  • Muttukrishna S &Ledger WL Inhibin, Activin and Follistatin in Human Reproductive
    Biology (book)
    Published Imperial College Press 2001
  • Marcus SF, Ledger WL (2002)
    Efficacy and safety of long-acting GnRH agonists in in vitro fertilization and embryo
    Human Fertility 4 :85-93.
  • Muttukrishna S, Lockwood G &Ledger W
    Ovulation induction in hypogonadotrophic patients: 53
    Practical Guide to Ovulation Induction Sathandan SM & Jacobs HS (eds)
    Published Imperial College Press 2002
  • Ledger W (2002)
    What to do about the polycystic ovary ‘epidemic’.
    Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynaecology 14:293-294
  • Ledger WL (2003)
    Models for future delivery of care in infertility - hospital-based services.
    Human Fertility 6 (Suppl):S22-4.
  • Ledger WL (2003)
    Laparoscopy for investigation of pelvic pain: new approaches?
    Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 15(3):257-8
  • Ledger W L (2003)
    Non-reproductive consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Current Obstetrics & Gynaecology 13(6): 350-354
  • Davies H, Greenfield D, Ledger W. (2003)
    Reproductive medicine in a late effects of cancer clinic.
    Human Fertility . 6:9-12.
  • Lok F, Ledger WL, Li TC. (2003)
    Surgical intervention in infertility management.
    Human Fertility 6 (Suppl):S52-9
  • Farag K, Hassan I, Ledger WL. (2004)
    Prediction of preeclampsia: can it be achieved?
    Obstetrics & Gynecology Survey. 59:464-82
  • LedgerWL& Skull J (2004)
    Amenorrhoea: investigation and treatment
    Current Obstetrics and Gynaecology 14: 254 - 259
  • Ola B &Ledger W L (2004)
    A commentary on systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of ultrasound
    guidance versus clinical touch embryo transfers
    Evidence Based Obstetrics and Gynaecology 6:135 - 136
  • Ledger WL & Prakash A (2004)
    Endocrinology of the normal menstrual cycle
    Human Fertility 7: 185 - 186
  • Ledger WL (2005)
    Clinical pharmacology of gonadotrophin preparations
    RBM Online 10; 3: 19 - 24
  • Ledger WL (2006)
    The menstrual cycle
    Dewhurst’s Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Blackwell Publishing
  • Ledger WL (2006)
    Current Status of Research Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells
    Southern Medical Journal 99: 1 - 5
  • Seng SW, Ong KJ & Ledger WL (2006)
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in in vitro fertilisation
    Women’s Health 2: 881 - 888
  • Ong KJ, TheodoruE & Ledger WL (2006)
    Long term consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome
    Current Obstetrics and Gynaecology 16: 333 - 336
  • Ledger WL, Murphy M & Hodges P (2007)
    Format and structure of the Part 2 MRCOG Examination
    Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine 17: 62 - 64
  • Cheong Y &Ledger WL (2007)
    Hysteroscopy and hysteroscopic surgery
    Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine 17: 99 - 105
  • Ong KJ, Metwally M &Ledger WL (2007)
    Uterine artery embolization and future fertility potential
    Women’s Health (in press)
  • Metwally M, Li TC &Ledger WL (2007)
    The impact of obesity on female reproductive function
    Obesity Reviews 8: 515-523
  • Ledger WL (2007)
    Favourable outcomes from "mild" in-vitro fertilisation.
    Lancet 369: 717-8.
  • Ledger WL (2008)
    Ist ART eine bevolkerungs-politische Mabnahme?
    Gynakologische Endokrinologie (published online Jan 2008)
  • Ledger WL (2008)
    Can ART help increase our declining population?
    Canadian Journal of Reproductive Health 3: 28 - 30
  • Datta, M, Hodges P &Ledger WL (2008)
    MRCOG: A global examination
    In The MRCOG, a guide to the examination
    Murphy M & Ledger WL (Eds)
    RCOG Press
  • Ledger W (2008)
    Expert answers on menopause
    General Practice Update, July 2008
  • Jones G L, Balen A, Ledger WL (2008)
    Health-related Quality of Life in PCOS and related Infertility: How can we assess this?
    Human Fertility 11: 173 - 185

  • Ziebe S, Devroey P; State of ART 2007 Workshop Group (2008)
    Assisted reproductive technologies are an integrated part of national strategies addressing
    demographic and reproductive challenges.
    Human Reproduction Update.145: 83-92
  • Devroey P, Aboulghar M, Fauser B, Garcia Velasco J, Humaidan P, Kolibianakis E,
    Ledger W, Papanikolau E, Tarlatzis B & Tomas C (2009)
    Ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonists
    Fertility Forum CD ROM
  • Ledger WL (2009)
    Complications of laparoscopic surgery
    Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine 19: 193 - 196
  • Ledger WL (2009)
    Pregnancy in the over 40s
    Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine 19: 142 - 144
  • Ledger WL (2009)
    Supine positioning after intrauterine insemination
    British Medical Journal 339: 4272
  • Ledger WL (2009)
    Format and structure of the new Part 2 MRCOG
    examination: I
    Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine 20: 27 - 28
  • Ledger WL (2010)
    Format and structure of the new Part 2 MRCOG
    examination: II
    Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine 20: 29 - 30
  • Cheong Y, Nardo LG, Rutherford T, Ledger W (2010)
    Acupuncture and herbal medicine in in vitro fertilisation: a review of the evidence for
    clinical practice.
    Human Fertility13:3-12.
  • Coughlan C & Ledger WL (2010)
    Polycystic ovary syndrome
    Textbook of Ovarian Stimulation
    95 - 110
  • Ledger WL, Anderson R & O’Brien P (2010)
    Multiple pregnancy following assisted reproduction
    Royal College of Obstetricans and Gynaecologists
    Scientific Advisory Committee Opinion Paper
  • Ledger WL (2011)
    The Menstrual Cycle
    Oxford Textbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes
    Wass J & Stewart P, (eds)
    Oxford University Press, 2nd edition
    1179 - 1185
  • Ledger WL (2011)
    ‘Where we come from determines how we fare - the fetal origins of adult disease’
    ‘The Conversation’ Online discussion forum, 29 September 2011
  • Ledger WL, Atkin S, Sathyapalan T (2012)
    Long-Term Consequences of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    RCOG Green-top Guideline 33
    RCOG Press
  • Ledger W L (2012)
    ‘The Older Patient’
    In: Assisted reproduction techniques: Management challenges
    Eds Sharif K & Coomarasamy A. Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • Costello MF, Ledger WL (2012)
    Evidence based management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome using
    surgery or assisted reproductive technology.
    Womens Health 8. 291-300
  • Costello MF, Ledger WL (2012)
    Evidence-based lifestyle and pharmacological management of infertility in women with
    polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Womens Health 8. 277-90
  • Koch J & Ledger WL (2013)
    Ovarian stimulation protocols for oncofertilty patients
    Journal of Assisted Reproduction & Genetics 30:203-6
  • Wong MY & Ledger WL (2013)
    Is ICSI Risky?
    Obstetrics and Gynecology International
    Published online 2013 February 26. doi: 10.1155/2013/473289
  • Ledger W & Abbott J (2013)
    Chronic pelvic pain
    In ‘Obstetrics and Gynaecology: an Evidence Based Approach’
    Churchill Livingstone London pp79 - 93
    Seshadri S & Bickerstaff H (2014)
  • Expert Commentary Professor William Ledger
    PGD in Oligozoospermia
    In: Challenging concepts in obstetrics and gynaecology
    Oxford University Press
  • Ledger W (2014)
    Mild stimulation protocols for onco-fertility patients
    In: Development of in vitro maturation for human oocytes
  • Ledger WL, Atkin S & Sathyapalan T (2014)
    Long term consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome
    RCOG Guideline 33, 3rd edition
    Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, London
  • Ledger W (2015)
    Premature ovarian failure
    British Medical Journal (accepted for publication)
  • Nesbitt-Hawes E & Ledger W (2015)
    Endometriosis and Infertilty
    In: Reproductive Surgery in Assisted Conception
    Springer Press London
  • Ledger WL (2015)
    A history of mental illness, but not of conception with assisted reproductive technology,
    puts patients at increased risk of severe postnatal depression.
  • Ledger WL (2016)
    Superfertility is more prevalent in obese women with recurrent early pregnancy


Professor William Ledgers' research has largely been directed towards the regulation of the function of the ovary, testis and placenta in health and disease states including infertility, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, miscarriage and pre-eclampsia. I established this programme of research when I moved to Oxford in 1993 and on moving to Sheffield in 1999, established reproductive medicine as a core interest of the department. During my time in Sheffield I was an active participant in the process of acquisition of a licence for human embryonic stem cell research, and established an MRC funded GMP stem cell derivation laboratory in Sheffield. This was the first laboratory in the world to meet GMP requirements allowing derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines that can be used for clinical trials. I founded and developed a unique NHSfunded and public focussed ART centre which allowed ethically sourced embryonic stem cells to be grown in near- GMP conditions, with potential for use in human clinical trials.

Our research since my move to Sydney in 2011 has focussed on the biology of the oocyte and early embryo. Strategic appointments (Gilchrist, Homer, Richani) have established a World class research group studying mouse and human oocyte development and regulation, and also embryonic genomic activation and expression (Hardy). I also maintain research interests in anatomical causes of infertility and gynaecological pathology including surgical adhesion prevention (Vancaille, Henry), health economics applied to reproductive medicine (Chambers) and in tissue, gamete and embryo cryostorage for young patients with cancer (Anazodo, Deans). This latter interest developed from my long standing research collaboration with the ‘Late Effects of Cancer’ group at Weston Park Hospital in Sheffield and now at Sydney Children’s Hospital. We have established the first Biobank for ectopic pregnancies, allowing ethical study of the implanting human embryo (Hill). Our work on biomarkers of ovarian reserve and early pregnancy failure has led to recent publications on methodological changes to a widely used assay for anti-Mullerian hormone and to ongoing studies on hyperglycosylated isoforms of human chorionic gonadotropin and development of new assays (immuno and GC-MS) for AMH, BMP 15 and GDP (Robertson, Gilchrist).

I have a long standing interest in safety of ART procedueres and was Chair of ISMAAR7, the first Australian meeting of the International Society for Mild Approaches in ART, held in September 2014 in Sydney. I was also a recent successful co-applicant with Professor Ian Fraser to FIGO (International federation for Gynaecology and Obstetrics) to host their 2021 meeting in Sydney.

As Head of School I have also fostered research in wider areas of Women's Health. Collaboration with Professor Sally Tracey has resulted in successful application for funding for studies on amniotic fluid lactate as a marker of fetal wellbeing during labour, and there are other obstetric collaborations with A/Prof Andrew Bisits and Professor Alec Welsh within Sydney. I have strongly supported the work of the National Perinatal Epidemiology and Statistics Unit under the Directorship of A/Prof Georgina Chambers. As Chair of the IVFAustralia Research and Development Committee I have supported a number of clinical research projects on time lapse video imaging of embryonic development (Starr), preimplantation genetic screening and diagnosis (Cook, Wilton), in vitro maturation of human oocytes (Gilchrist, Cook) and oocyte spindle deterioration with ageing (Homer, Riepsamen) and I also work with Flinders University and Flinders Reproductive Medicine in development of a new CGH array for study of the human embryonic genome (Matthews).